Skip to main content

Full text of "Old cottages & farm-houses in Surrey;"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



12155! 

■A 



.1 I 



)I 



1 \^ 



( I 



1 1 



t\t| ;• ,; \-' 



1.' 



I'll 



)CF 5(555- 




'^MfM< - )ulyi^-^j^r 



OldG>ttages 

AND 

FARMHOUSES 

DM 

SURREY 



UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME. 



Crown quarto (lo in. X 7 in.), art linen, gilt, price zis. net. 

OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 
IN KENT AND SUSSEX. 

Illustrated on One Hundred Collotype Plates from Photographs 

by W. GALSWORTHY DAVIE, Architect. 

With Descriptive Notes and Sketches by E. GUY DAWBER, 

Architect, F.R.I.B.A. 



Crown quarto, art linen, gilt, price 21s. net. 

OLD COTTAGES, FARM-HOUSES, AND 

OTHER HALF-TIMBER BUILDINGS 

IN SHROPSHIRE, HEREFORDSHIRE, 

AND CHESHIRE. 

Illustrated on One Hundred Collotype Plates from a special 

series of Photographs by JAMES PARKINSON. 

With Introductory and Descriptive Notes and Sketches by 

E. A. OULD, Architect, F.R.LB.A. 



Crown quarto, art linen, gilt, price 21s. net. 

OLD COTTAGES, FARM-HOUSES, AND 

OTHER STONE BUILDINGS OF THE 

COTSWOLD DISTRICT. 

Being examples of the Smaller Domestic Architecture of 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE, OXFORDSHIRE, NORTHANTS 

AND WORCESTERSHIRE. 
Illustrated on One Hundred Collotype Plates, from a special series 
of Photographs by W. GALSWORTHY DAVIE. With an 
Analytical and Descriptive Account of the Architecture of the 
District, and many Illustrations from Drawings and Photographs, 
by E. GUY DAWBER, Architect, F.R.I.B.A. 




a 
en 
O 

k. 
u 

< 
X 



u 

O 

< 
H 
H 
O 
O 



y%^ _ j-^- __^iL_ 



*^Tt ri, — wTi- 



?Ji 



^J 



(^ 



tPTTAGE^ 

AND 

^lS#FARMHOU5ES' 

IN 

SURREY 

PHOTOGRAPHED BY W GALSWORTHY DAVIE 



WITH AN 
INTRODUCTION AND SKETCHES 
W.CURTIS GRHEN A.RXB.A. 



BY 



V. 



LONDON" 
B.T. BAT5FORD 
94^.HIGH HOLBORN^ 

1505 



A^ 



WT- 



"^2 — -z^ — ^ — ;r'\f— ^" 



KF2I 



5 S3 



HARVARD 

UNlVfRSITY 

LIBRARY 



0'5dl^ 10^ 



BUTLBR & TANNBR. 

THB SELWOOD PRINTING WORKS, 

FROUB, AND LONDON. 



PREFACE 

I AM asked by Mr. Davie and by Mr. Batsford to preface my 
introduction with an expression of their thanks to the owners 
or occupiers of cottages or houses who have helped in the making 
of this book. Every photographer will appreciate the difficulties 
which have had to be contended with ; a good photograph would 
often have been impossible without the kind offices of those living 
in the houses. In my own less arduous task the kindnesses I ex* 
perienced never failed to impress the charm of the buildings more 
strongly on my mind. A preface gives me the opportimity of 
recording my respectful admiration for the patience and tenacity 
with which Mr. Davie — ^now no longer an active member of the 
architectural profession — has carried through his undertaking. 
The present collection of illustrations is one of a series, the previous 
volumes of which have treated of similar work in other counties. 
The series originated in Mr. Davie's beautiful photographs, and 
it is to these that the publication of this volume is due. 

The subject of "The old cottage and domestic architecture of 
South-west Surrey " is the title of a work by Mr. Ralph Nevill, a 
. work well known among architects and those interested in domestic 
architecture. Mr. Nevill collected and preserved records, the 
value of which is generally recognized. His book was a mine of 
information to me before this volume was ever contemplated, and 
it is in no emulative spirit that I have undertaken a further con- 
tribution on the subject. The lapse of seventeen years since the 
last edition of Mr. Nevill's book, and the scope of the subject 



vi PREFACE 

itself, would be justification, were one needed, for the publication 
of the collotype plates from these photographs. 

Mr. Davie's experience in the other volumes of this series no 
doubt made my part lighter than it would otherwise have been. 
He found several of the buildings illustrated, and drew my atten- 
tion to some of their details. 

Amongst others, my thanks are due to the Rev. Gerald S. 
Davies, of Godalming, and to Mr. Penfold, of Haslemere, for 
pointing out interesting examples. Mr. Penfold also kindly lent 
some of his photographic views, shown in the text, of cottages 
since disfigured by the hand of the restorer. Mr. George Jack 
and Mr. A. B. Hayward have supplied me with valuable 
matter regarding Great Tangley and the Guest House at Ling- 
field respectively. My brother, Mr. A. Romney Green, of Hasle- 
mere, has helped me throughout with criticism and counsel. My 
notes make no claim to originality of thought or research ; the 
authority for statements of facts are the recognized text-books 
upon English domestic architecture, and are, as far as I am 
aware, duly acknowledged in the footnotes. 

W. CURTIS GREEN. 
14, Gray's Inn Square, 
London, W.C. 
Aprils 1908. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLATES 



ARRANGED UNDER NAMES OF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 

Plate 

ABINGER (near), Crossways Farm ... i8, 19 

„ „ WoLVENS Farm ..... 100 

ALFOLD, Cottage at ....... i 

„ Cottages by the Church . . . • 2, 3 
ASH, In the Village ....... 3 

„ Manor Farm -4 

„ The Village Street ...... 5 

BEDDINGTON, Cottages, Church Green • 6, 7 

BLETCHINGLY, Farm-house, Brewer Street ... 8 

„ Cottages near the Church ... 9 

BRIMSCOMBE, Chimney and Entrance at . .11 

„ Cottage at . . . . . .10 

CHIDDINGFOLD, Combe Farm 13 

„ Cottage at . . . . -15 

„ (near) West End Farm . . .12 

„ The Crown Inn .... 16 

„ The Old Vicarage .... 14 

COMPTON, A Cottage at 17 

CROWHURST PLACE, View across the Moat 20 

„ Warren Farm-house . . . . .21 



vu 



VUl 



LIST OF PLATES 



Plate 

BASHING, Cottages at 22, 23 

„ Cottages by the River .... 24 

„ (near) ....... 29 

ELSTEAD, Cottages at 16, 89 

EWHURST, Cottages at 28, 29 

„ Northlands Farm . . 25, 26 

„ POLLINGFOLD FaRM-HOXJSE, ElLENS GrEEN . ^^ 

„ Summersbury Farm-house . . . . 3^ 

FARNCOMBE, Cottages at ...... 33 

„ The Almshouses . . 3i> 32 

FARNHAM, Castle Street 34 

„ Downing Street . .... 36 

„ (near) Farm-house and Footbridge . . 35 

„ Oriel Window ..... 35 

„ View up Fir Grove 36 

FRENSHAM, Cottage at 37 

„ Spreakley Farm-house .... 38 

FROSBURY Farm-house 39 

„ AND LiTTLEFIELD, FaRMS BETWEEN . . 4O 

GODALMING (near), Unstead Farm-house . . 4i> 42 

„ „ Hurtmore Farm-house . . .81 

GODSTONE, Church Road 43 

GOMSHALL, Houses at ..... 44)90 

GUILDFORD (near), Compton's Farm, Wood Street . 45 

„ „ Cottages . . . . • 46 

„ „ Manor Farm, East Shalford . 60 

HAMBLEDON, Cottages at 32,^56 



LIST OF PLATES 



IX 



(W Page, 



Photo.) 



HASLEMERE, Cottages at . . . 

„ Shepherd's Hill 

HORLEY (near), Smallfield Place 
LINGFIELD, Cottages at . . . 
„ Shop and Cottage 
„ The Guest House 

LITTLEFIELD Farm-hoube 
MAYFORD, Woking, Cottage at . 
MILFORD, AT Moushill 

„ (near) Cottage at Nine Elms 

„ Farm-houses at . 

„ Tiled Cottage . 

NEWDIGATE, Cottages at Kingsland . 

„ (near), the " Surrey Oaks " Inn 

NORMANDY VILLAGE (near), Farm-house and Cottages . 
ti „ „ Ruined Cottage ; Cottages 

OCKLEY (near), Bonnet's Farm . 

,1 „ Oscroft's or Street's* Farm 

OXTED (near), Stockhurst Farm . 

„ „ Back of " Stud House " 

RIPLEY Cottages at . 
„ Hole, Cottage. 
„ The "Anchor" Inn. 

SEALE, East End Farm-house 
SHAMLEY GREEN, The Post Office 



Plate 
48,49 

47 
82 

52 
51 
50 
98 

92 

53 
55 
54 
56 



59 
60 

58 

57 

61,62 

63 



33 
46 

66 

67 

65 

68, 69, 70 

7h 72, 73 



LIST OF PLATES 



SHAMLEY GREEN, Cottage at . . . 

„ „ Detail View of Gable . 

SHERE, Cottages at .... . 
SLYFIELD GREEN (near Guildford), Cottages at 

„ „ Woodlands Farm 

STOKE (near Guildford), Cottages at 

„ „ „ Slyfield Farm 

TANGLEY MANOR, GREAT . 
THURSLEY, Cottages at 

„ Cottage near the Inn 
„ (near) Cottage . 
TONGHAM, Barn at . . . 
„ Cartshed and Granary 

„ AND Farnham, Cottages between 

WITLEY, Cottages near the Church at 
„ The Manor Farm 
„ The Village Street 
„ The "White Hart" Inn 
„ (near) a Gabled Farm-house 
„ „ Tigbourne Farm 

WORPLESDEN, Cottage in Village 
„ Hurst Cottages 

,. Norton Farm-house 



Plate 

74»7<5 

• 75 

55, 77> 78 
80,81 

• 79 
83,84 

• 97 
85,86 

89,90 

88 

87 
91 
91 

;,92 
96 

97 
95 
94 
76 
93 
58 
98 
99 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



Fig. 
Wumbcr 



Abbot's Hospital, Guildford, r. under Guildford. 
Alfold, Chimney • . . . 

„ Glazing 

Ash Manor Farm-house, Staircase . 

„ „ „ Chimney . 

25, 26. Barge boards .... 

95. Bed wagon ..... 
Beddington, The Old Post Office . 
Bletchingly, A Gable .... 

„ Hour Glass Stand 

Bramley, A Cottage .... 
Brewer Street Farm, Detail of Angle Post 
3S> 49- » M „ Doorway 

43. „ „ „ Wooden Mouldings 

2. Brooke, Cottages at ... . 

(J. W. Pcnfold, 

84. Casement Fastener .... 

42. Chiddingfold, The Crown Inn 
68, 69, 70, 71, 72. Chimney Stacks 
67. Chimney, Typical Forms of . 

96. Crowhurst Place, Wooden Candelabrum . 



72. 

99- 

55- 
70. 



6. 
20. 
92. 
36. 

34- 



Houses) 



,, „ Floor 

„ „ Interiors 

(From C. Bail^, Remarks on Timber 

y „ Knocker 

, „ Oak Panelling 

f „ Wooden Mouldings 

35, so, SI, S2, 77' Doors .... 
24. Dormer Window, A . . . . 
Bashing, A Well at ... . 

(W. Galsworthy Davicj 

East Horsley, Cottage at . • . 

(J. W. Pcnfold, photo, 



38. 

65,66. 

82. 

41. 

43- 



102 



3 



photo. 



S3 



1.39: 



photo 



Page 

55 
67 
41 
54 
23 
65 

6 
21 

65 
32 
30 
31,38 
34 
3 

61 

34 

54»S5 

52 

66 

32 

50.51 

61 

33 

34 

40,59 
22 

68 



) 



.) 



3 



XI 



xu 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



40. 

37. 44 

11- 

9- 

17- 

97 

52- 
103. 

58. 

57- 
48. 



Page 

7 
) 

25,26 
60 
) 



Fig. 
Number 

7. East Shalford, Manor Farm 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo 

28, 30. Ewhurst, Weather Tiling . 

78. Farncombe, Almshouses at 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo, 

75. Famham, Cottage at 58 

90. „ Entrance Gateway ..... 63 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo.) 

43. „ Fir Grove Hill, Wooden Mouldings . . 34 

25, 26. „ Barge Board in Oak .... 23 

91 „ Ironwork of Gateway .... 64 

45. „ Mouldings in . . . . . -36 

93. „ A Vane ...... 65 

15. Frensham, A Gamekeeper's Cottage ... 16 
86. Footscraper ........ 61 

20, 24, 27, 61. Gables . . . . . 21, 22, 24, 45 

16, 98, 99, 100. Glazing . . . . 17,67 

73, 74. Godalming, Ornamental Brickwork . . 56, 57 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo.) 

63. Godstone, A Fireplace ...... 48 



„ House at ...... ^3 

„ Roof Truss . ..... 20 

Great Tangley Manor, Detail of Window at 32, 35 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo.) 

„ „ „ Doorway at . . -59 

„ „ „ Plan of House and Gardens 1 1 

„ „ „ Roof Truss . . .18 

Guildford, Abbot's Hospital, Candelabrum at . . (^ 

„ „ „ Door at . . .40 

„ „ „ Lead Rainwater Heads ^ 69 

„ „ „ Fireside Settle at . 43 

„ „ „ Table and Bench at . 42 

„ Bay Window • • . . -38 



) 



) 



15 



• INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT xiii 

Fig. 
Number Page 

31. Guildford, Cottage in Farnham Road ... 27 
46, 47. „ High Street, Bay Windows at . -37 

loi, 103.,, Lead Rainwater Heads at . . .67,69 

28. Hascombe, Weather Tiling at .... 25 

8: Haslemere, Cottage at . . . . . .10 

(W. Galsworthy Davie, photo, 

14. „ Near ...... 

(J. W. Penfold, photo 

27. „ Gables in the High Street • 

28. „ Weather Tiling at . . . 
79>^8o. Hinge, Iron and Ornamental 
82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 91, 93, 94. Ironwork . 61, 62, 
81, 83. Knockers 
[ 5. Leigh Hill, Cobham, Cottages at . 

(Frith & Co., Reigate, photo 

18. Lingfield, The Guest House, Details of the Hall 
10. „ „ „ „ Plans of the 

33. „ Shop at 

85. Lock and Bolt 
100. Milford, Glazing at 

40, 43, 45. Moulding 33 

50. Newdigate, Doorway at 

68. Ockley, Bonnet's Farm, Chimney at 

54- >y yy n Newel at 

56. „ „ „ Oak Trestle Table and Benches 

at 
98. Oxted, Glazing at . 
39, 41, 44. Panelling . 
94. Pipe Rack 

9, 10, 15. Plans of Cottages . . . ii> 

60. Platters, Old Wooden 

(H. D. Gower, photo.) 



24 

25 
60 

64,65 

61 

5 
) 

12 
29 
61 

67 
34.36 
39 
53 
41 

42 

67 

33.35 

65 

12, 16 
44 



XIV 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



Fit. 
Nmnber 

28. Prestwick, Weather TUing 
51. Puttenden, A Doorway . 
64. Racks, Spit .... 
71. Rake House, Chimney . 
39. Rede Place, Beam and Panelling 
32. Ripley, Newark Mill, near 

(Frith & 
II, 12, 13, 17, 19. Roof Construction 
88. Rushlight Holder . 
87. Scold's Bridle 

^6. Seale, Window in Farmhouse at 
56, 57, 58. Seats, Benches, etc 
15, 18, 21. Sections of Cottages, etc. 

29. Shalford, Weather Tiling at . 
69. Shottermill, Chimney 

64. Spit Racks 

59. Stoke D'Abernon, Church Chest at 



Co., Reigate, 



16 



(G. C. 



Davie. 



Summersbury Farmhouse, Ewhurst 
I. Sutton, near Abinger, Cottages at . 

(W. Galsworthy 

28, 29. Tiling 

23. Tongham, Cottage at . . . 

46, 47, 48, 76. Windows 
22. Wipley Farmyard 

(W. Galsworthy 
„ Farm, Section of a Barn . 
Witley, Weather Tiling at 
Woking Village, Brick Gables in 
Wolvens Farm, Back Entrance 
Woodgate Green, Epsom, Cottages at 

(Frith & Co., Rcigatc, 



21 
28 
61 

53 
4 



Drucc, 



Davie, 



Page 

25 

39 

49 

54 

33 
28 



photo.) 

14. 



18, 20 
61 
61 

• 58 

42»43 
16, 10, 21 
26 

53 
49 
43 



photo.] 



17 
I 



photo.) 



37 

photo, 



photo.] 



25, 26 
22 

38»58 
21 

) 
21 

25 

45 
40 

4 




FIG. I. A SURREY HAMLET, SUTTON, NEAR ABINGER. 

Old Cottages and Farm-houses 
in Surrey 

I^HESE cottages and farm-houses are the work of 
generations of unknown English craftsmen rather 
than of famous or clever individuals. The interest 
attaching to them is more nearly that of a living tradition 
than of an historical style. They have a breath of life about 
them for us to-day which is significant to an increasing 
number. There is, too, more general regret than was once 
the case at the destruction of old buildings, joined in even 

B 



2 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

by those who do not appreciate their full worth. The efforts 
to preserve old work are better organized, and show an 
increasing sense of responsibility towards that which remains 
unspoiled. Where preservation is impossible it is becoming 
a recognized duty to record as faithfully as possible the char- 
acteristics of the old work. For this purpose I think there is no 
doubt that photographs are superior to sketches, though photo- 
graphs alone are not an ideal record ; accompanied with figured 
diagrams they are perhaps the best that can be done until 
organized surveys of the old houses in this country are collected. 
There are probably many careful scale plans and sectional 
drawings made by responsible students in existence ; these would 
be invaluable supplemented with photographs, and housed where 
they would be accessible, as for instance with the Phene Spiers 
Collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The making 
of such surveys is the best introduction to domestic architecture 
that the student can have. To omit measuring and drawing 
on the spot is to know little of the simplicity of structure, the 
laborious handwork, and the fancy arising from it, which ennobles 
old work. Draughtsmanship has well defined limits of useful- 
ness, and in no other school are these so readily learnt, for here 
is the baffling factor apparent in every work of art, which it is 
impossible to convey to paper in terms of measurement. Some 
of these old buildings are works of art, that is, they show that 
intangible quality, the result of growth and life, which no 
artificial rules or mechanical means can achieve ; those employed 
on the building were doing creative work, according to their 
capacity for their fellows, who were competent to appreciate 
success or failure. 

The destruction of ancient houses with their associations is a 
serious enough matter in any country, even after it has well con- 



IN SURREY 




FIG. 2. AT BROOKE — BEFORE ALTERATION, TAKEN IN I885. 




FIG. 3. COTTAGES AT EAST HORSLEY. 



4 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

sidered with what to replace them. To us, such houses as these 
illustrated by Mr. Davie, essentially English in design and work- 
manship, are a heritage ; they are gradually disappearing, and 
being replaced with our own work. If it were not that an 
increasing number of our new houses are built on principles 
comparable to those exemplified by the best old work, the position 
would be deplorable indeed. To some, unfortunately to some 




FIG. 



WOODGATE GREEN, EPSOM. 



of the most cultured, it is without hope. Yet, if we consider 
the degraded state to which the art of building sank during the 
earlier half of the last century, we shall appreciate the improvement 
that is taking place. The rise of new conditions and new ideals 
in society happily does not imply the total loss of what was best 
in earlier times, though first principles may be lost sight of in 
the passing experiments of the untrained. Our connection with 
these old houses is really no distant one, it has only been broken 



IN SURREY 



off ; in getting into touch with them again we need not be 
archaeologists and antiquarians, but makers of things for present 
use, learning principles of fit- 
ness and construction and 
methods of workmanship that 
will bring out the best qualities 
of the workman and the 
material. We need a tradi- 
tional building art, that will 
enrich life, and add to the 
pleasure of the country side. 

The small houses of the 
country towns and villages, and 
the cottages on the common 
(Plates XXXIV, xxxvi. Figs. 1-5) 
are more than historical relics ; 
the forms which they take are 
dictated by principles which 
can never be old or out of 
date. In building of a utili- 
tarian character, such as cottages and small houses, economy 
is necessarily one of the dominating factors. When Emerson 
said " that the line of beauty was the line of perfect economy," 
he was only putting into words what has so often been shown in 
building. Architecture is no exotic aloof from the facts of life ; 
it has to express the needs and ideals of the time, and cannot 
thrive apart from them. 

It is obvious to the most superficial that economics act directly 
upon building and the allied arts. Architecture has always been 
a transcript of history, showing the defects and virtues in the 
life of those producing it. Thus the central fact in considering 




FIG. 5. LEIGH HILL, COBHAM. 



6 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

the continuous history of domestic architecture is the break in 
the continuity of its development which began, during the last 
part of the eighteenth century, with the introduction of the factory 
system and the r^pid development of machinery. The machine 
took the place of the craftsman, and set up a false standard amongst 




FIG. 6. THE OLD POST OFFICE, BEDDINCTON (BEFORE RESTORATION). 

employers and employed. Not only did it become master, but 
it tried to conceal poverty, making it hideous where before it had 
been homely and unpretending. The quality of traditional work 
disappeared under these new influences ; the old buildings of the 
cottage class became mere picturesque features in the landscape, 
devoid of meaning for builders in the nineteenth century. Then 
came the reaction from the result of these conditions, and an 
attempt was made to revive the past styles of building, but the 
tradition had been broken, the requirements were different, and 
the revival was an imitation only of outward forms which had 
originally been the outcome of the natural circumstances of 



IN SURREY 




FIG. 7. A SURREY FARMSTEAD MANOR FARM, EAST SHALFORD. 

building. Had it not been for that now famous inner circle of 
the Gothic revivalists, supported by the writings of Morris and 
Ruskin, who realized that it was the spirit of the old work which 
was lacking, the revival would have ended in the imitative school. 
To them we owe the life and vigour which has marked the best 
work of recent years. They gathered the broken threads of the 
old traditions and drew the crafts together. They insisted 
upon the value of the old work, and the necessity for studying 
it as the foundation of architectural education and good taste. 
They showed that it was necessary, in order to form an intelligent 
opinion upon architecture — other than mere likes and dislikes — 
to understand the reasonableness and continuity of the various 
steps which produced architecture in the past. They showed 
that, important as the systematic study of archaeology is, it is 
not architecture, but that as a practical standard, as a revival of 



8 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

form rather than of spirit, it is an attractive By-path Meadow 
leading to Doubting Castle and Giant Despair. 

If domestic architecture, therefore, is to be a living subject for 
us, there is no way but to follow those who have bridged the gap, 
and brought us in touch with the work of our ancestors, to whom 
building was an art comprising all the handicrafts and trades. 
These old buildings are not all beautiful or well built ; time has 
softened many of their faults, and made them almost loveable. 
Yet through them all runs the same surprising simplicity and 
bigness in design, the same straightforward methods in solving 
problems of construction; it is not only the simplicity of the 
nursery, but the logical and " final refuge of the complex." 

The character of the country districts, and the state of society 
in the Middle Ages, is described in the ninth chapter of the third 
volume of Hallam's Middle Ages. The country presented great 
tracts of forest lands, the timber from which played so large a 
part in building. Grant Allen, writing on some of the farm-houses 
of Surrey in the English Illustrated Magazine some years ago, 
explains the local significance of the names of some of the villages, 
and the way in which the wilder parts came under cultivation. The 
early pioneers were the swineherd and the woodman ; the first found 
food for his herd in the acorns of the vast oak forests, which were 
called dens; the second, following, made the clearings, called 
iieldsy or felled spaces. As these came under cultivation, parts 
were fenced off by the shepherds for folds. All these words are 
found as terminals in the names of the villages of Surrey and the 
Weald. LuUenden, Deepdene, Puttenden, Limpsfield, Lingfield, 
Chiddingfold, and Alfold, are villages with names of local signifi- 
cance. Again, the leys are the cleared lands, and the hursts the 
densely wooded ones ; such for instance are Tuesley, Bramley, 
Crowhurst and Ewhurst. Other names show the woodland 



IN SURREY 9 

character of Surrey : Oakwood, Holmwood — holm being the 
old English name for holly — Famham, Lingfield, Cranleigh, 
Elmhurst, and the rest. 

The coombes in the deep-wooded bottoms, and near the 
fords of the streams, were the building sites of our ancestors, 
who dwelt low on the rich soils of the valleys rather than on the 
heights as we do to-day. 

The charm of the county is not due to geological formation 
alone, though it has unusual variety of scenery, and extraordinary 
seclusion in its inner recesses ; it is in part due to economic develop- 
ment. Surrey was in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a 
centre of manufacture and trade. The Weald of. Surrey, Kent 
and Sussex was the birthplace of the Iron Trade. The flourishing 
condition of this trade, and other industries which throve con- 
currently with it in Tudor days, gave us many country houses, 
and villages then enjoyed great prosperity for a time, until the 
coalfields of the north usurped the place of the forests in the 
south. The removal of the iron industries at an early stage. in 
their development, left relics of building and the crafts that in 
all probability would have otherwise been swept away. These 
latter are of particular interest to the many people who are trying 
to establish conditions in which the workman may again make 
the necessities of life in building and the lesser arts with proper 
materials, so put together that they satisfy the eye, and instil a 
wholesome pride and pleasure into the life of the worker. 

The characteristics of Surrey building are not very different 
from those of Kent and Sussex. Our ancestors used the local 
materials in whatever county they were building ; and they thus 
produced a tradition of use and design in their work in keeping 
with the country-side. Some districts, such as the Cotswolds 
and parts of Yorkshire, and Westmorland, are dependent on one 



10 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



local building material; in these the houses are stone-built and stone- 
roofed, and are entirely satisfying. In Surrey the local materials 
are more numerous. East End Farm, Seale (Plates lxviii, lxix), 
shows walls of stone and brick, half timber and plaster, half timber 
and tile hanging, with a tiled roof. Bonnet's Farm (Plate lxi) has 

half timbered walls, 
the panels filled 
with red brick and 
lath and plaster, the 
whole roofed with 
stone slates. Crow- 
hurst Place (Plate 
xx) exhibits the 
building materials 
of every period, save 
perhaps its roof 
covering, which is 
of stone slates and 
red tiles, no doubt 
replacing earlier 
thatch or wooden shingles. The half-timber house at Ewhurst 
(Plate xxviii) still has its stone slated roof, while the stone-built 
cottage at Haslemere (Fig. 8) is now roofed with red tiles. 

All have undergone alterations and additions at the hands of 
successive generations, but so cunningly done in the traditional 
way and with such kindly materials that the whole has mellowed 
together. Some of Mr. Davie's detailed views (notably Plates 
XXV, XXVI and lxx) give some idea of the colour and texture of 
these hand-worked, and, in the case of brick and tile, hand-made 
materials. These are qualities which no machine-made substitute 
can ever attain. 




FIG. 8. A STONE-BUILT COTTAGE AT HASLEMERE. 



IN SURREY 



II 



The nature of the building materials, and the hand labour, 
are not the only qualities of the old work. The picturesque con- 
fusion, where it exists, is the result of successive additions rather 



OKXJiX TAHOi-KV M4f«OI^ . 




FIG. 9. PLAN OF HOUSE AND GARDENS, GREAT TANGLEY MANOR. 

than of conscious effort. The jumble of roofs and gables, the 
irregular lines of the plans, and the variety of the building materials 



12 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



used, are the accidents pf time rather than the attributes of good 
work. They conceal the underlying simplicity and directness of 
the original plan, without which no building can be seriously con- 
sidered as a contribution to architecture. 

This is not the place to consider in detail the planning of the 
larger houses, a few views of which, such as Great Tangley Manor 

(Plates Lxxxv and 
Lxxxvi), are, for 
special reasons, in- 
cluded in the illus- 
trations. I am 
indebted to Mr. 
George Jack for 
allowing ine to 
make tracings of 
the ground plan 
(Fig. 9) and details 
of the roof from his 
notes on Great 
Tangley. This 
Manor House 
in its present state is an instance of what can be done to 
preserve an old house, at the same time adding to its size and 
convenience. The plan shows Mr. Philip Webb's additions, but 
not those more recently done by Mr. Jack. The drawing-room 
was originally the hall, the portion cut from it now marked " hall " 
is a feature of the mediaeval plan ; one side of the haU was usually 
cut oflE for a passage by a screen, at one end of which was the 
principal, at the other the back entrance, the arrangement still 
obtaining at Great Tangley. The hall was open to the roof, 
and there was probably a gallery over the screen. The division 




FIG. 10. PLANS. 



IN SURREY 13 

of the hall into two floors took place probably at the end of the 
sixteenth century, the date of the present front. The roof trass 
is part of the early building, and is shown on Fig. 17, p. 18. 

By the kindness of Mr. Arthur B. Hayward I am able to give 
a ground and first-floor plan of the guest house at Lingfield 
(Fig. 10 and Plate l). When Mr. Hayward's father bought the 
house, it had unfortunately been divided up, and for some time 
occupied, as three labourers* cottages ; all this was altered, and 
great care was taken by the late Mr. Hayward to re-establish as 
much as possible of it in its original state. It is an interesting 
example of the mediaeval type of plan, with the central hall two 
stories high, and the offices and bedrooms at either end under 
the same roof. The chimneys are additions, the fire originally 
burning in the centre of the room, the smoke escaping through 
louvres in the roof, a primitive arrangement of that time still found 
in many yeomen's houses of the sixteenth century. Fig. 18 
(p. 19), drawn from materials left by Mr. Hayward, shows some 
details of the construction of the hall. 

The development of the plan of these houses, and details 
regarding the life of the landowners and their dependants, can 
be read in Hallam, Turner, Parker, and an exhaustive little book 
entitled The Evolution of the English Hause^ by S. O. Addy, M.Sc, 
which I shall shortly have reason to quote. The labourers of 
mediaeval times lived beneath the roofs of their masters' houses 
and of the monasteries, and no doubt in cottages too of a poor 
character, but of these no traces remain. With the Reformation, 
changes took place in the ownership of the land, in the manner 
of life, and in the housing of the peasant and labouring classes. 
In the purely agricultural districts the poverty of the people 
prevented any permanent class of building; it is in flourishing 
centres of industry like that of Surrey that well-built cottages 



H 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



are found. In these simple buildings of the Tudor and Stuart 
period we find the traditions of building which in towns and large 
houses had been abandoned, or modified, hy the inroads of foreign 
workmen and classic ideals. The Renaissance swept the country 
of Gothic art in high places, but it left the humble phases of 
building, and the country places of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries show work very little influenced by the new methods. We 
thus get a glimpse into times earlier than those actually repre- 
sented by the dates of the buildings. 

It will, I think, be found that the roof construction governed 




FIG. II. 



FIG. 12. 



FIG. 13. 



the planning of these cottages, just as, in a greater degree, it 
governed the plan of a vaulted basilica or a Gothic cathedral. 
This is indirectly borne out by antiquaries and others who have 
studied the evolution of house building; they show that the 
earliest houses were without walls, the roof springing from the 
ground ; the house consisted of a number of roof trusses shaped like 
the letter A (Fig. 11), spaced about 16 ft. apart,* the legs of the A 

1 " In the tenth century English buildings were measured hy the linear perch 
of 16 ft., now 16 ft. 6 in. If we ask ourselves how it was that the perch became the 
unit we shall see that it was so because 16 feet was the standing room required 
for four oxen in the stall, and also for the standing room for four oxen in the field, 
inasmuch as they ploughed abreast. Accordingly the length of the bay, viz. 16 
feet, corresponds to the breadth of a rod or rood of land, the acre being composed 



IN SURREY 



15 



— the principal rafters^-curved outwards in order that the sides 
of the house should be as nearly vertical as the construction would 
allow ; the collar of the truss, that is the cross line of the letter 
A, was sufficiently high to allow of head room for moving about 
the house. The truss still retained this shape when vertical 
walls were first 
added (Fig. 12) ; the 
only alteration was 
that .the collar 
beams were length- 
ened to rest upon 
the top of the wall 
upon a wall plate, 
the roof itself was 
then formed of 
rafters spiked to 
the ridge piece, 
supported by the 
apex of the trusses 16 ft. apart, and to the wooden plate on the top 
of the low walls. The extension of the length of the house was 
merely a matter of adding more trusses. Greater width came 
only with greater skill by forming oflEshoots at the side or sides.* 
These early forms are worth bearing in mind, they are " the lines 
of economy," and underlie all subsequent developments. 

It was but a step to stand the roof itself upon the wall, and 
so arrive at the primitive two-roomed cottage, Fig. 13, the upper 
room in the roof gained by a ladder. This was easily enlarged by 




FIG. 14. NEAR HASLEMERE. 



of four roods, each 16 feet broad and 640 feet long, lying side by side. This was the 
origin of the long as well as of the normal width of a rod of land." — The Evolution 
of the English Housey by S. O. Addy, M.Sc. 
1 Addy. 



i6 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 





'"ii'' --- 

• •KlTXTHCN 

■^ !' M II " 



te^^rtSf^ 



1/ ! nil 



^^ 



V 



;- I WASH 
HOW9C 

^ ^0 






PL. ATMS 



$tfU^ A^TflHi £^i4«io M^STrtcyMMa X^bdrfi ^4 'iSl^'' 




G/VAEKEEPEKS COTTAG^E.FRENStiAfA. 



•|L- 



I ■ « ' I I 



FIG. 15. 



the addition of an- 
other bay to its 
length, and by 
carrying down the 
roof at one side or 
at the ends, till it 
nearly touched the 
ground, as in Figs. 
14, 15 and 16, a 
most economical 
and incidentally pic- 
turesque addition, 
locally known as a 
"skiUing." The 
gamekeeper's cot- 
tage (Fig. 15) at 
Frensham shows 
this last develop- 
ment of plan. It 
is a typical example 
of a Surrey cottage, 
and at present is 
little spoiled. A 
good example of 
the yeoman's house 
is that of Summers- 
bury Farm (Fig. 
16). I am in- 
debted for the illus- 
tration to a draw- 
ing by Mr. Shuflfrey 



IN SURREY 



17 




5UI^MER.50UK^f FAR^^ house, in i^^3. 

TPIAGED Ff^O^ AOPtAWlNa/_lnY ^^ L A 3HUFFKE.Y ^^^ 
IN THE. ARCrtlTEcTf^AU ^ ii |^ ASSQOATIOM ^KETCH 

Book QF1Z73-4- 




VltW FKdnt-fH.E 



FIG. 16. 



i8 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 











:; ;; 



FIG. 17. 



which I have traced from the Architectural Association Sketch 
Book of 1873-4. This shows the building before it was re- 
roofed and otherwise restored (Plate xxx). 

The buildings have not the rich open timber roofs, such as 
make many old mansions famous, but the principles in some of 



IN SURREY 



19 




20 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



the better-class houses are the same, carried out in a rougher 
and more homely manner. 

Fig. 17 shows the roof construction at Great Tangley ; Fig. 18 
that at the guest house, Lingfield ; Fig. 19 a truss to the house at 







Godstone shown on Plate xliii. In these a collar beam construction 
is observed, the collars supported by a purlin which is strutted up 
from the summer beams holding the wall plates. The gable at 
Bletchingly illustrates the same kind of construction, exposed 
to view on the outer gable, forming a pleasant piece of design 



IN SURREY 



21 



(Fig. 20). The roofs of the old 
barns are instructive, and are 
probably very nearly allied to 
the coverings of the mediaeval 




FIG. 20. GABLE AT BLETCHINGLY. 



S«US#H i4um m, 'ArAm «^i^K»dy tVm^H*^^ 



FIG. 21. 




FIG. 22. WIPLEY FARMYARD, NEAR NORMANDY. 



22 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



hall (Figs. 21, 22). The cottages generally show a simple collar 
beam construction without a truss, though I speak with diffidence, 
for after getting upstairs the plaster ceiling often defies investi- 
gation of the construction above. The collar beam roofs generally 
show purlins, which rest on the transverse walls of the house, or 
are supported by the hips of the roof (Fig. 3). The older houses 
have no gables, the roofs are hipped back where these would come, 
the eaves of these hips being at a higher level than the main roof, 
either that the end walls may support the purlins, or that windows 
maybe inserted in the wall to light the rooms in the roof (Fig. 23). 





Huit^^t^ 7#i«5|ii 



FIG. 24. 



FIG. 23. 

The earliest roofs are very steeply pitched, and the unbroken 
surface is one of the charms of the old work; gables and dormer 
windows as at the White Hart at Witley (Plate xciv) are probably 
later additions. The Anchor Inn at Ripley (Plate lxv) shows the 
treatment of dormer windows carried further to great perfection. 
A typical dormer window is shown in Fig. 24. Its last develop- 
ment is shown in the row of shops in the High Street, Haslemere 
(Fig. 27), where the dormers have developed into a number of 
gables along the front with only valleys between running back into 
the main roof. The same treatment often occurs at one end of the 
building only, as at Plate xlvii, with happy effect. Shamley Green 



IN SURREY 



23 



Post Office (Plate lxxiii) shows this gable very cleverly kept out 
from the mam roof. It was natural to carry the verges of the roof 
well out over the gable walls ; the rafters to support this projection 
and cover the wall plates and purlins, to which they were housed, 
were made deep and thin, and with a true instinct for well- 
placed ornament were often elaborately moulded, or chamfered 
and pierced with cusping or tracery ; not many are left now, 
owing to their exposed position. Fig. 25 shows a fine example 




BARGE BOARD IN OAK ON A HOUSE 
AT FARNHAM. 



H 



FIG. 



26. 



on a house facing the church at Farnham, and Plate lxxv shows 
the original large board at the Post Office at Shamley Green. 
Fig. 26 is from Alfold ; Plate xix the detail view of the porch 
at Crossways Farm, Abinger, shows a moulded board, the 
moulding agreeably mitred and returned at the bottom. 

The " healing," or roof covering itself, was originally of 
thatch of reed or straw, or of wooden shingles. I know of 
no roof of wood shingles in Surrey, though they still exist 



24 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



in other parts of the country. Thatch is fast disappearing 
in Surrey. During the fourteenth century thatch was fre- 
quently whitewashed as a precaution against fire.^ The danger 
from fire, and the cost of up-keep, both play their part in 
eliminating thatch, but its disappearance is chiefly owing to 
machine reaping, which so bruises the straw that its life is only 
one-third of that reaped by hand ; hand reaping is now almost a 
thing of the past, so that thatching is in danger of becoming a lost 
art. Roofs of Horsham stone slates are frequently found in Surrey ; 




-*■ -■■■ - ^ m ..^^ 



iW^^ 



•JKiIC \^t^j(*^*^*M^ 



FIG. 27. 



the slates are laid in diminishing courses, the big ones at the eaves, 
and the smallest at the apex of the roof ; the pitch of the roof is 
generally less steep on account of the weight of the material, and 
the consequent stress on the wooden pins holding the stone slate. 
These pins perish in time, and it is probable that all the examples 
of stone roofing shown in these illustrations have been relaid at 
one time or another. No doubt when these removals took place, 
the stone was often replaced with tiles, as at Summersbury Farm- 
house (Plate xxx). The pitch of the roof was generally, though not 
always, greater than 45% avoiding a right angle in the gable, which 
* Parker's History of Domestic Architecture. 



IN SURREY 



25 



is not pleasant in this position. As an exception to this rule I 
note that Puttenden and Bonnet's Farm at Ockley (Plate lxi) 
appear to be roofed at an angle of 45 ®. The latter has a stone roof, 
but it illustrates my point in favour of an acute angle for a gable. 
The angle of the guest house at Lingfield, which is stone roofed, 
(Plate l) is about 47% as also is that of the cottage at Frensham 

(Fig. 15). 

The tiled roofs and walls now seen in so many houses are 









yK7\J\^ 




^^^X-/ 


wKJKJX-^ 


\^x^ 


^A^^i^Av 


XXXj^ 


So§ 


^^^ 




1^ ^t^y^Tff 


^^ 


^Tc^c^Nr^ 


^y{^y(^^^S^\ 




^X^/CX/v 


OOXTy^ 


^*i^i— ^"^—^ A^ 


^ N>^ >^y \^ ^ 









PKEISTY/ICK. HASCO/ABE EWHUKST WlTL.^^ HA5LE^\ERE 

FIG. 28. EXAMPLES OF WEATHER TILING. 

not, except in late examples, the original covering. In the 
fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries there was a 
great demand for tiles to replace roofs of wooden shingles 
or thatch, and it was only when the supply was more than 
sufficient for the demands of more important personages that 
the yeoman and the cottager could come by them.* The 
earliest tiles were probably rounded, like the scale of a fish, as 
illustrated in MS. of the period, and not straight. I know of only 

* " The art of working clay, one of the earliest arts, never fell wholly into abeyance 
in any country in which it had been extensively practised. In England it survived 
the period of Roman dominion, during which it was extensively cultivated ; in the 
Domesday Survey potters appear among other crafts incidentally enumerated." — 
Turner, p. xxvii. 

Tiles and brides and glass were imported from abroad in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, and foreign craftsmen were recruited abroad to forward the home 
industries. 



26 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




"^^^ap/uL 



FIG. 29. 



one cottage roofed entirely with these rounded tiles, about two 
miles south of RedhiU, and cannot say whether they are original 

or the freak of a later period. This 
pattern is seen in vertical tile hanging 
at Prestwick (Fig. 28) and elsewhere. 
Figure 28 shows other fancy shaped tiles 
used for vertical tile hanging in various 
combinations ; neither on a roof nor on 
a wall, as weather tiling, do fancy shaped 
tiles, in my opinion, look so well as the 
straight. Fig. 29 shows a pattern on the 
old mill at Shalford. Perhaps the most 
satisfactory patterns are those produced 
by using straight-edged tiles of different 
colours in various forms of diaper. The tiles for this purpose 
were sometimes of the same make and colour when they left 
the potter's hands, the pattern developing only with age ; one 
lot of the tiles forming the pattern had been dabbed with the 
bristles of a stiff brush before the tile was burnt, thus producing 
a rough surface which weathered more quickly than the ordinary 
hand-made tile. There are several reasons why an old tile roof 
looks better than a new, apart from 
the colour given to them by age and 
mossy growth. The tiles were thicker 
and more uneven in thickness and in 
size than are the tiles produced by -^^^ ^^^^u;^ 
modern machinery (though happily ^«*«r ^2>ve^^aife4«c •r<i<;-^ 
hand-made tiles are again easily pro- fig. 30. 

curable) ; the holing for the tile pins 

being done by hand was irregularly spaced; the laths were of 
rent oak and consequently very uneven ; and the rafters were 




IN SURREY 



27 



either pit sawn, or squared with the adze ; the surface on which 
the tiles were laid was therefore an uneven one to start with, and 
time has warped and twisted them still further. I do not suggest 
that these attractive wavy lines should be reproduced in new 
work ; to attempt it would be an unpardonable affectation, but 
the hand-made tile should be used, and the maker should not be 
asked to produce them too even in colour and thickness ; the sand- 
faced hand - made 
tile will weather the 
delightful colour of 
the old roofs in 
due time. The old 
tiles were fastened 
with pins of hazel 
or willow, and some- 
times of elder.* 
Weather tiles were 
hung on oak laths 
and were bedded 
solid in lime and hair mortar. Fig. 30 shows the pattern worked 
in the plaster flashing with the bricklayer's trowel on a cottage 
at Ewhurst. 

One of the features to be learned from old tiling is the saddle- 
back hip tiles at the salient junction of two planes of the roof. They 
form a rounder and more pleasing line at the hip than the right- 
angled tiles generally used to-day and they are to be had from most 
of the best tile makers. The gablet at the apex of hipped roofs is 
also an attractive feature of the old work ; both gablet and hip tiles 
are shown on the frontispiece. The ridge tiles on the old roofs are 




[IN FARNMAM ROAD. (aUlUDFORPr " 
FIG. 31. 



* Addy, p. 49. 
2 NeviU. 



28 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



plain half-round tiles, which have not been improved upon since. 
I have seen and sketched ornamental ridge tiles in Suffolk, the 
individual work of one man, not a casting from a machine, but I 
know of none in Surrey. The practice of bedding roofing tiles in 
clean straw is still followed in some parts of Surrey, but in 
better-class work roofs are now always covered with boarding and 
felt before laying the tiles. 

During the sixteenth century and the early part of the seven- 




NEWARK MILL, NEAR RIPLEY. 



teenth, timber was the staple building material of the neighbour- 
hood. Its use accounts in part for the disappearance of earlier work. 
A far larger number of the houses illustrated in this book are of 
timber framed construction than appears on the surface of the illus- 
trations. From time to time repairs were undertaken, and defective 
walls were preserved by covering them with weather boarding ^ or 

^ The mill at Ripley (Fig. 32) is an instance on a large scale of a timber-framed 
building covered with weather boarding, probably at the time it was built. 



IN SURREY 



29 



vertical tile hanging, or the whole front was plastered over and 
whitewashed. This was probably the case with the picturesque 
group of houses in the Farnham Road at Guildford (Fig. 31). The 
making of tiles was an industry which developed slowly, and there was 
a great demand for them for roofing, so that vertical tile hanging 




f *—- '^^ 



FIG. 33. OVERSAILING STORY OF SHOP IN LINGFIELD. 



is generally of later date than most of the houses to which it has 
been applied. Stone was to be had, and a certain number of 
houses were built entirely of stone (Plate lxxxii and Fig. 8), 
but in general it was used in walls for foundations only, until 
brickfields were well established. Brick was first used almost 
entirely for chimneys ; it was used then in conjunction with 
timber framing for filling in the panels (Fig. 33) ; later the 
ground floor was built of brick with timber framing above 
(Plates II and xlvii), and, as timber became scarcer, brick sup- 



30 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




FIG. 34. DETAIL OF ANGLE POST, BREWER STREET FARM. 



planted it for 
outer walls 
altogeth e r 
(Plates xc and 
c). Later 
on I refer in 
more detail to 
brickwork. 

The method 
of timber fram- 
ing is ex- 
tremelysimple, 
and has been 
ably described 
in previous 
volumes of this 
series. The 
earliest type is 
that known as 



Post and Pan, .the post being approximately the same size as 
the panel. Examples of this are shown on Plates xx, xxviii, and 
XLi, illustrating a house at Ewhurst, Crowhurst, and Unstead. 
Sometimes the upright puncheons or quarters are ploughed 
and a board inserted between them as a panel, as in the 
rooms at Crowhurst Place. A section through them is shown 
in Fig. 41. The external wall is formed of a series of upright 
posts tenoned into a sill on or above the ground floor level and 
into a head at the ceiling level ; the intervening spaces were 
filled with wattle and daub, a plaster of lime and loam mixed with 
chopped straw in it.^ This adhered to the network of hazel bands 

^ A material not unlike Devonshire " cob," though I believe there is no lime in 
" cob." 



IN SURREY 



31 



previously fastened between the oak posts, which were grooved 
for this purpose. This wattle and daub basketwork must be a 
survival of primitive hut construction; it still stands in the 




FIG. 35. DOORWAY AT BREWER STREET FARM. 

gamekeeper's cottage at Frensham (Fig. 15) and in many other 
houses. Sometimes the filling was done with bricks laid in a 
herring-bone pattern, producing the beautiful effects illustrated 
in Plates li and xxviii at Lingfield and Ewhurst. The early 



32 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

Post and Pan type is retained in superior 
work where the corbelling out of the upper 
story is adopted. I have made a rough 
diagram (Fig. 3 3) to illustrate these project- 
ing stories, measured from the fine example 
at Lingfield. This was built about 1520 





FIG. 36. BRAMLEY. 



FIG. 37. DETAIL OF PANEL OF FIG. 44. 



and would seem to have been a shop from the first ; unfortunately 
it has been badly restored. Various reasons are given for thrust- 




FIG. 38, OPEN 
FRAMED FLOOR AT 
CROWHUR&T PLACE. 



IN SURREY 



33 



ing the upper story out 
over the lower, all of 
them more or less un- 
likely ; it seems to me 
one of those develop- 
ments which would arise 
on the spot while the 





1(I9MB3JJJH ■ yflJVj;^ 






work was in progress, justifiable alike on the score 
of sound construction, the economical use of ^material, 

and beauty 



II lit LI III I IJ I. j; J I 







C4n*1(tjrmjui_ 




of design. 
Take the in- 
stance of the 
farm at 
Brewer 

Street (Plate viii). The 
dragon beam, corner post, 
struts and cantilever joist 
construction shown in 
more detail in Figs. 34 
and 35, add greatly to 




FIG. 39. BEAM AND PANELLING, REDE PLACE. FIG. 4O. HOUSE AT GODSTONE. 

D 



34 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




FIG. 42. THE "crown INN " AT CHIDDINGFOLD. 



the stability of a form of construction none too weighty in it- 
self ; it allows of the use of short lengths of timber ; it gives 
character to the design. 

From the post and panel treatment, more complex systems were 
evolved, such as placing the timbers further apart, putting braces 

or struts to stiffen the 
frame, and forming small 
rectangular panels by the 
addition of transomes which 
were filled with orna- 
mental struts. 

The house at Shamley 
Green (Plates lxxiv-v) is 
a good example of the large 
panel treatment with 
curved braces. The most 




k 3" >< 



7i'- 



FIC. 43. TYPICAL WOODEN MOULDINGS. 



IN SURREY 



35 




FIG. 44. DETAIL OF WINDOW, GREAT TANGLEY. 

elaborate is that at Great Tangley (Plates lxxxv-vi), the panels be- 
ing treated with curved braces in the form of simple tracery (Fig. 44); 
Fig. 37 shows the carving on the puncheons and transomes ; a simple 
treatment of the same forms is seen at Bramley. This treatment 
is carried to great lengths in other counties, but I think the more 
sober forms are preferable in every way. The oak in these half- 
timber houses has usually weathered a most delightful silver-grey 
colour ; the blackened timbers have been treated artificially and 
are hard and unpleasant in comparison with the natural colour. 

Many of the framed floors in buildings of timber construction 
are beautiful pieces of work ; the mouldings of the joists and beams 
at Crowhurst, shown in the accompanying cut (Fig. 38) are extraor- 
dinarily refined. The less ornate mouldings are frequently quite as 
attractive, such as those at Rede Place (Fig. 39) and at Godstone 
(Fig. 40). These both rest on corbels simply carved, giving in- 



36 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



terest where it is wanted without any display of effort. The solid 
panelled walls at Crowhurst (Fig. 41) and Rede Place (Fig. 39) are 
also interesting, the panelling forming the wall being itself suffi- 
ciently strong to bear its share of the 
weight of the floor over. 

This is perhaps the place to 
speak of doors and windows and 
other joinery found in timber-built 
houses. Both doors and windows 
are openings left between the pun- 
cheons and transomes of the timber 
construction. Where these openings 
were moulded they were worked by 
hand on the solid posts of the house. 
During the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries windows were usually fitted 
with wooden shutters, the opening 
being guarded by square bars of oak 
or iron let into head and sill. Re- 
mains of these openings are to be 
seen at Lingfield and elsewhere. 
Glazed windows of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries were rare 
and costly; a nobleman travelling 
from one of his houses to another 
would unhang his glazed casements 
and take them with him, together with 
his tapestry for shutting out draughts, his beds and other furniture. 
The Crown Inn at Chiddingfold (Fig. 42) shows the primitive 
window opening in the quarters of the timber construction ; a 
slight rebate is cut for the iron casement and the fixed glazing ; the 




FIG. 45. 

MOULDINGS AND BRACKET OF 
WINDOW AT FARNHAM. 



IN SURREY 



37 




FIG. 46. BAY WINDOW, HIGH 
STREET, GUILDFORD. 

Brewer Street are typical 
of the best sixteenth cen- 
tury work. A view of the 
Great Tangley window is 
given in Fig. 44, from a 
photograph taken by Mr. 
Davie. 

Not many instances of 
transomed windows occur 
in these plates ; they are 
found in work of a larger 
character than is here gen- 
erally dealt with. In 
smaller work the lowness 
of the rooms prohibit the 



"I casements are hung on hooks 
driven into the posts. The 
charm of old joinery, apart from 
its fresh and direct design, lies in 
the hand-worked mouldings with 
which it is enriched. Nearly all 
the early window frames which 
remain are moulded — moulded 
out of English oak by hand labour. 
Fig. 43 gives sections of some of 
the mouldings used. The example 
from the Farnham window is the 
most common ; that from Crow- 
hurst Place is the only one of its 
kind I have seen ; those of the 
windows at Great Tangley and 




FIG. 47. 

BAY WINDOW, HIGH STREET, GUILDFORD. 



38 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



^PE|^^H^^^^3||^P^n -^ 1 ■ 


1 


1 


flflrl ' 


'<Sf 


1 


^ 




&^ 


i 

i 




1 




^ 


pm 








ii 


s" 1 




i& „ 


^ 



FIG. 48. 
BAY WINDOW, GUILDFORD. 



higher form of window. Many of 
the old windows have been pulled 
out for larger lights of inferior work 
and design. Here and there the little 
old window frames are left in and 
built up, and larger ones added along- 
side. This applies very generally to 
bedrooms, once lit in an inadequate 
way, low down near the floor ; the 
majority of dormer windows are 
additions to remedy this defect. 
West End Farm-house, near Chid- 
dingfold (Plate xii), shows the long 
stretch of glazing so characteristic of 
Tudor work. A modified instance of 
this at Great Tangley is shown on 
Plate Lxxxvi. Summersbury Farm- 
house (Fig. 16) 



shows the hori- 
zontal treatment 
of glazing between the puncheons support- 
ing the building. 

Plate XXXV includes a view of a window 
in a gable of a house on Fir Grove Hill, 
Famham, an early and favourite form of 
cottage window, of which few are now left. 
Fig. 45 shows the mouldings and simple 
carving on the bracket, sill and head of 
this window. 

Bay windows are not a characteristic 
feature of early work. Those shown in Figs. 




FIG. 49. 

AT BREWER STREET. 



IN SURREY 



39 




FIG. 50. AT NEWDIGATE. 



46, 47, 48, date probably from 
the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. They are without 
the grace and strength of 
earlier joinery, but they are 
pleasing features in the Guild- 
ford High Street, with the ex- 
ception perhaps of Castle Street, 
Farnham (Plate xxxiv), the 
most picturesque street in 
Surrey. These illustrate the 
flat section of frame and mul- 



lion of later work, which is per- 
haps the most suitable section at 
the present time. 

Fig. 49 shows a door opening 
at Brewer Street Farm-house — a 
common type in the sixteenth 
century — this is an inner frame 
with no sign of a door ; probably 
a tapestry or leather hanging was 
used. Doors ar^ exposed perhaps 
to more wear and tear than any 
other part of the house, and it 
is not surprising that the number 
of original doors, or " claddings," 
as they were called, should be 
few and far between. The 
original frames are of substantial 
timbers, usually about 6 inches 




1*4 

FIG. 51. HALF PLAN AND SECTION 
THROUGH FRAME DOOR AND 
FRAME, PUTTENDEN. 



40 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




FIG. 52. 
DOOR AT abbot's HOSPITAL, GUILDFORD. 

posts. That supporting the 
dragon beam at the same farm 
is out of timber about 36 
inches x 16 inches, set root 
uppermost. 

The doors at Newdigate 
and Puttenden are made of 
two thicknesses of oak, the 
outer one vertical, the in- 
ner one horizontal, secured 
together by rough wrought- 



square, with a large plain 
or moulded chamfer, with 
a simple but effectively- 
designed stop on the inner 
arris on the outerside of the 
door; Figs. 51, 52 are in- 
stances of this. The door- 
post at the Brewer Street 
Farm - house measures 1 6i 
inches x 13 inches, which, 
as far as I know, is only 
surpassed in bulk by story 




FIG. 53. 

BACK ENTRANCE, WOLVENS FARM. 



IN SURREY 



41 




iron nails long enough to be driven 
through both thicknesses of board and 
clenched on the inner side. The outer side 
is often of moulded boarding, as in Figs. 51, 
52; the inner is usually quite plain, the 
clenched nail points are exposed to view, 
the hinges, latch, and bolts, where they are 
original, make the inner face pleasing to 
the eye. The joints in the internal board- 
ing in some cases were covered with plain 
moulded strips some 2i inches wide and -f 
inch thick. 



FIG. 54. 

No less vigorous 
are other details of 
joinery. The newel 
post and handrail 
to the stair at Bon- 
net's Farm (Fig. 
54), and the admir- 
able newels, hand- 
rails and balusters 
at Ash Manor Farm 
(Fig- S5)> are typical 
examples of this 
class of work. In 




FIG. 55. ASH MANOR FARM STAIRCASE. 



42 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



neither do the original treads and risers remain. The extremely 
slow rise of the balustrade at Ash Manor Farm, having no con- 




FIG. 56. OAK TRESTLE TABLE AND BENCHES AT BONNET's FARM, OCKLEY. 

nection with the rise of the existing stair, suggests that there 
may once have been an inclined slope, such as are found in houses 
on the Continent, or a very shallow stair cut from the solid log. 
These are both instances from yeomen's houses of the best class 
{see Plates iv and lxi). The early cottages either had no stair. 




FIG. 57. TABLE AND BENCH AT ABBOT's HOSPITAL, GUILDFORD. 

the upper rooms being reached by a ladder, or the stair was cut 
out of a solid plank, or it was formed of winders around a 



IN SURREY 



43 




FIG. 58. FIRESIDE SETTLE AT ABBOT's 
HOSPITAL, GUILDFORD. 



central massive newel post. 
Fig. 56 shows the seating 
arrangements at Bonnet's 
Farm. Chairs would be 
almost unknown in these 
houses at the time they 
were built. Fig. 57 shows 
a more ornate table and 
stool from Abbot's 
Hospital at Guildford ; 
from which place I drew 
the fireside settle (Fig. 58). 
The chest (Fig. 59) is a 
good instance of the simple 
ornament of the joiner's 
trade ; the joiner was also 

responsible for the early dinner service shown in Fig. 60, though 

tradition says that a large piece of bread was more generally 

used than a wooden 

plate. 

These timber- 
built houses are, I 

am afraid, an art of 

the past. When 

they were built, 

they were the 

natural product of 

the country side. 

Now the oak forests 

are gone, and no 

fresh trees are fig. 59. chest, stoke d'abernon church. 




44 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



planted ; instead of timber being the material common to 
all, it is only the wealthiest who can aflFord to use it with that 
careless generosity of bulk which characterizes the old work, and 
makes it so agreeable and satisfying to the eye. Moreover, we 
have building bye-laws in many country places suitable- only 

for crowded towns, 
which necessitate a 
brick backing to the 
timber construc- 
tion, of a thickness 
rendering the tim- 
ber unnecessary for 
constructional pur- 
poses. These build- 
ing bye - laws are 
much in need of 
reform in country 
places, in so far as they lay down the law on matters purely archi- 
tectural. Those that relate to the height of rooms often impose 
height greater than that which is desirable for health in cottages, 
and which is destructive of all proportion in small rooms, and 
needlessly extravagant of material. 

Enlightened model bye-laws are nowadays a necessity, and, 
like the system of building by contract, are a far older institution 
than many people imagine. Instances of both, dating from the 
thirteenth century, are given in Turner's Domestic Architecture 
of the Middle Ages. 

The brick-built houses in this book are generally of later date 
than those of timber, and as brick, where it is easily obtainable, 
as it is in Surrey, is the cheapest building material, these brick- 
built cottages have a special interest for us to-day. 




OLD WOODEN PLATTERS. 



IN SURREY 



45 




The earliest use of brick in this country since the Roman occu- 
pation is a matter of controversy at the present time ; it has 
hitherto been generally supposed that bricks were re-introduced 
into England by the Flemish weavers who settled here in the 
fifteenth century ; they are supposed to have imported bricks direct 
from Holland. Mr. 
John • Bilson, writ- 
ing in the R. /. B.^i. 
Journal of Janu- 
ary II, 1908, takes 
the view that bricks 
were being made in 
England, and had 
been made for a 
long time before 
this date. Mr. Bil- 
son points out that 
they were known 
as tiles in this 
country until the 
fifteenth century ; 
either as " wall- 
tiles," which came 
to be called bricks, 
or " thack-tiles " (roofing tiles). 

The Flemish immigrants may well have been acquainted with 
the beautiful brickwork of the Netherlands, and they may have 
imported skilled brickmakers from that country to encourage the 
manufacture of bricks, and the art of building in them. 

In Surrey, brickwork was at first confined to chimneys ; it was 
then used in place of plaster and wattle for filling in the space 



"By^ f*^ «^ iU^ aUau. 





46 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

between the timbers of framed houses ; and by the time of Charles I. 
it had become the staple building material. 

The old bricks are a better shape than the standard size now 
made. They are longer in proportion to their thickness ; those 
in the gamekeeper's cottage at Frensham are a very average 
size ; they vary, but are about lo inches x 5 inches x 2^ inches. 
2 inches to 2j inches is the usual thickness. They are very hard 
and rough, and uneven in shape and size. The mortar joint is 
wide, and greatly adds to the good appearance of the wall. The 
local bricks of Surrey are, as a rule, excessively porous when first 
made, but the surface becomes harder with time. It is only partly 
true that the colour of a brick depends upon the clay of which it 
is made ; it is more a matter of the amount of heat it undergoes 
in the process of burning. 

The modern practice of importing machine-made bricks for 
external facings destroys all interest in the surface of the wall ; 
they set up a false standard for the bricklayer, and it is, besides, 
well known that for weathering purposes a local material will often 
stand better than that imported from a distance. 

There is, as far as I know, nothing to be said in favour of using 
bricks of machine-like evenness of shape and colour. Such bricks, 
too thick in proportion to their length, laid with a thin starved- 
looking joint, make an ugly and lifeless wall, a thing unsightly to 
look at and difficult to cover. The important thing is that the 
bricks should be hard and well burnt, the rougher they are the 
better will the mortar adhere ; the joints in the brickwork are a 
pleasing relief to the wall surface, provided they are of lime mortar 
and not of Portland cement ; if good lime and sharp gritty sand 
of uneven grains be used for the mortar, its life will be as good, 
and it will become as hard, as the brick itself. In domestic work, 
Portland cement in place of lime is both extravagant and un- 



IN SURREY 



47 



desirable, unless for exceptional positions, and even then, is it 
not permissible to point the joints on good lime mortar. 

Chimneys were one of the first parts of a house to be built in 
brick. Parker gives an extract from the household book of a Sir 
John Howard in the fifteenth century, showing the cost of adding 
a chimney to be twenty- 
six shillings. The fire 
originally burnt in a metal 
brazier standing in the 
centre of the room, the 
smoke escaping from an 
outlet in the apex of the 
roof. This was often the 
case down to the middle of 
the sixteenth century. The 
flues formed in the thick- 
ness of the wall of Bolton 
Castle were noticed by 
Leland in 1538 as some- 
thing curious and remark- 
able, and no doubt they 
existed in the castle long 
before they did in the yeo- 
man's house or the cottage. 
Such a primitive arrange- 
ment could only have been possible with wood fires, and must 
have been very uncomfortable for the occupants.^ When the 
open roofed central hall or common room was converted into 
rooms one over the other, as was the case at Great Tangley and 

* Coal was introduced into London in the fourteenth century ; the citizens objected 
strongly to its use as it blackened the external walls of their whitewashed houses. 




FIG. 62. NEAR HASLEMERE. 



48 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



the guest house at Lingfield, flues to cany the smoke became 
not a luxury but a necessity. This multiplication of chimneys 
in the better class houses dates from the fifteenth century.^ 

The chimneys built outside the houses of early date have all 
the appearance of additions, particularly in houses of timber con- 
struction. In the smaller examples, the stacks usually occur at 
the end of the house, sometimes, as at Milford (Plate liii), there 
is one at either end, and very charming is the effect so obtained ; 
nevertheless it is a position to be adopted in modern work with 
circumspection, requiring, as it does, considerable skill and 





iH* t/C 



SiUuT 



FIREPLACE AT GOD8TONE. 



judgment where the size of the stack may have to be relatively 
small. In other instances, again, the stack is built up inside the 
existing building, as at the guest house at Lingfield, emerging 
sometimes astride the ridge and sometimes to one side of it, as 
at Eashing (Plate xxii). The treatment of the roof in this 
example so as to avoid a gutter is very characteristic ; so far as I 
know it has died out in this country, but it is still practised in 
France. 

The internal chimney stack gives greater warmth to the house 
than the fireplace built in an outer wall. 

The chimney corner within (Fig. 65) and the stack without 
^ Turner, Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages. 



IN SURREY 



49 




(Fig. 62) are among the most 
delightful features of the Surrey 
cottage. The chimney corner was 
a natural development of the 
requirements of the time. Wood 
was the only fuel, and it was 
to be had for the gathering, in 
great abundance. Parker says it 
was thrown on the fire in alternate 
layers of dry and green faggots. 
The hearth therefore was large 
and the canopy overspreading 



FIG. 64A. 

A 8PIT-RACK. 



and capacious, to collect and carry 
the smoke. The recess was the 
most convenient form, the opening 
as low as possible to prevent the 
smoke eddying out into the room; 
that at Godstone (Fig. 63) shows 
the simplest form of open fire. The 
lintel was usually a chamfered oak 
beam roughly squared with the 
adze, though occasionally a four- 
centred or semi-elliptical brick arch 
was turned over the opening, as at 
Holdfast Farm, near Haslemere. 
The sizes of the recess vary in the 
smaller examples, generally not less 
than 3 feet 6 inches deep, and some- 





L'i' 




~^( 




^, ■ 




f 


1 mm 





FIG. 64B. 
A SPIT-RACK. 

£ 



so 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



times as much as lo feet 6 inches wide ; the gathering in of 
the canopy to the flue externally forms a series of tile roofed 

offsets which 
give grace 
and beauty 
to the base 
of the stacL 
Occasionally 
the tiled 
roofs over 
these oflFsets 
are stopped 
by parapet 
walls in the 
form of brick 
corbie steps, 
so common in 
the gables of 
brick-built 
houses in the 
eastern coun- 
ties ; instan- 
ces of this 
occur at Un- 
steady and are 
shown on 
Plate XLii. 
The win- 
dows sometimes found in these recesses are of later date and 
are not generally satisfactory additions. The cooking was 
done at the open fire, and the master of the house could, at 




STAIRS FROM THE UPPER STORY, 
CROWHURST PLACE. 



IN SURREY 



SI 



the end of the day, betake himself to the seat within the fire- 
place, and there enjoy his pipe. When the recess continues 
through the upper floor the bacon was hung and smoked in the 
great open chimney. Now, alas, the open fire is old-fashioned, 
and few remain in their original state. 

The hearth itself was of brick, raised its own thickness above 
the floor level ; the fine cast-iron firebacks of the Weald protected 




FIG. 66, CROWHURST PLACE: INTERIOR OF ROOM OVER PARLOUR. 

the bricks where the fire was hottest ; on the hearth stood fire dogs 
for supporting the heavier logs, an iron bracket built into the wall 
to support the kettle or pot, and oak seats on either side of the fire, 
supported on brickwork completed the inner side of the recess ; over 
the lintel would be a rack (Fig 64) from which was suspended the spit 
for roasting, and then a shelf, possibly furnished with polished brass 
and pewter and earthenware ; beneath the lintel a narrow printed 



52 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



c=( 



^ 



IS 



K^t, 




n» 



,mi)tnmf,^ 



\n£ff 








C, /^ 


c# 


y^^/4r' — 


— -^^^!?^ 






^g'4MPT^,.FiF=lp: 


^ 


h,-, 


-— - 






'i-^ 
^^^' ' 


4^1 .^^—ii 

H-: — jr-' 


tHt 


1 
=1 


— * — 




.*.. 


E 



i I 







4 S 

FIC. 67. NOB. 1-5. TYPICAL FORMS OF CHIMNEYS: I, FROM HASLEMERE ; 
2, FROM FARNCOMBE; 4 AND 5, FROM COM8HALL. 



IN SURREY 



53 




cotton curtain was hung, to assist in 
keeping back the smoke. Each accessory 
was pleasing in itself, and the decoration 
of the room was entirely dependent 
upon that which was necessary and 
useful. 

Figs. 65 and 66 illustrate interiors 
at Crowhurst Place, both good ex- 
amples of a fifteenth-century interior 
entirely of timber, with the exception 



FIG. 68. 

AT bonnet's farm, 

OCKLEY. 

of the fireplace, and containing 
many wrought beams. 

The variety of treatment 
of the chimney stacks them- 
selves is almost endless, and 
it is not easy to find two ex- 
actly alike, except in the same 
village. The chimney on the 
external wall has generally two 
flues only, that of the kitchen 
and that of the room over ; 




FIG. 69. AT SHOTTERMILL. 



54 OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 

often there is only the one. In 
late work many more fireplaces 
were required, and the stacks, 
whether on external walls, or 
emerging through the roof, rise 
in a great mass of masonry high 
above the level of the roof* 
Occasionally the flues are con- 
tained in separate shafts rising 
u from the same base, which give 




PLAIN 
FIG. 70. ASH MANOR FAR^f, 

lightness and beauty to the 
whole. More frequently many 
flues are built in one stack, 
sometimes regular (Fig. 71) and 
sometimes irregular in plan (Figs. 
6g, 70). The plainest of these 
give a certain distinction to the 
building from the large and 
generous part they play in 
the general design* Those 
at Bonnet's Farm and Rake 




FIG. 71. RAKE HOUSE. 



IN SURREY 



55 



House (Figs. 68 and 71) are things of beauty, and a joy for 
ever. If we cannot achieve the more ornate we can at least see 
that our houses have the distinction of the simpler treatment ; 
gathering as many flues as possible into one stack rather than 
multiplying the number of stacks makes for economy in 
building, and efficiency in carrying the smoke and keeping the 
house warm. The examples I have drawn 
are given without a scale. The position 
renders it out of the question to measure 
them with a foot rule, and though the 
bricks and the jointing have been care- 
fully counted, the size of the bricb varies 
too much for it to be safe to add a scale 
of feet and inches. The flues seem to 
vary in size, though they appear to be 
never less than 9 inches x 14 inches, some- 
times a great deal more. From the 
jointing of the brickwork the outer skin 
appears seldom to be more than half a 
brick thick above the base of the shaft, 
after it emerges through the roof. In 
good work of the present day, the outer 
wall of a stack is generally one brick 
thick, with the consequence that our flues draw better than 
our ancestors' did, though this is not the only reason. An 
attractive addition to the old stack is sometimes found in the 
large bake ovens built on at its base, covered with a lean-to roof, 
such as those shown on Plates xxiii and lxxx. I do not know 
the date of the first chimney pot ; many old chimneys have rudely 
constructed pots, conical in shape, of brick plastered over; and 
some have roofs of brick and tile, locally called a " bonnet." The 




FIG. 72. 



56 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



details of the chimney stacks are of the simplest character ; even 
in the richest examples the designs are not laboured, but the 
expression of material rightly used. 

Indeed, Surrey is happy in the purity of style both of brick- 
work and of half- 
timber construction : 
neither makes any 
extravagant display of 
ornamental detail such 
as characterizes some 
of the brick building 
of the eastern counties, 
and the half-timber 
work of the Midlands. 
Wherever detail does 
not assist the main 
object of the building 
it is excluded, and 
where it is called for 
it is appropriate to the 
material and of good 
workmanship. 

The exception to 
this general statement 
is to be found in 
instances of orna- 
mental brickwork of 




FIG. 73. GODALMING. 



the middle of, the seventeenth century. The examples occur only, 
to my knowledge, in or near the important market towns of Fam- 
ham, Guildford, and Godalming, places where the fashion of 
foreign ways would first take hold in the country. The most 



IN SURREY 



57 



successful of these is that of the old town hall in Famham, 
of which the merest fragment remains. The lower wall sur- 
face was divided into bays by a rude representation of the Ionic 
order, supporting a cornice all of brick ; a deep frieze over this 
to the eaves is panelled in alternate squares and circles. The 
examples at Godalming (Figs. 73, 74) are not of such happy 




FIG. 74. GODALMING. 

design, but show a lively fancy and enjoyment of the pos- 
sibilities of the material ; the panel in Fig. 74 is dated 1663. 
The iron window frames look of later date, and detract from the 
design by the pattern of the iron glazing bars, itself unobjection- 
able, but introducing in this instance a fresh element in an already 
restless piece of design. Happiest of all are the quiet brick mould- 
ings and cornices found on the front of the Crossways Farm near 
Abinger (Plate xix), and in some small houses in Guildford. I think 



58 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




FIG. 75. 
COTTAGE IN FARNHAM. 



the charm of the delightful cottage 
at Milford, shown on Plate liii, is 
due to the general design rather 
than to the treatment of brick panel- 
ling on the front. In the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, 
rubbed bricks for mouldings were 
used in chimneys, bases and heads 
and string courses (Figs. 6i and 75) 
Bricks were used for the window 
frames and mullions in place of wood, in imitation of the tradi- 
tional stone treatment. The eflFect is not unpleasing, though 
the straight heads of the windows, strong as these are in practice 
in well executed work, is aesthetically unpardonable. In the 
almshouses at Farncombe (Plate xxxi and Fig. 78) this brick- 
work has unfortunately been painted white in imitation of stone, 
a deplorable piece of vandalism. A simple expedient for giving 
interest to a plain brick wall is that of using bricks of different 
colours forming a pattern in the wall. Plate v at Tong- 
ham, and Plate i at Alfold are examples of this. The bonding 
of the brickwork shows 
alternate "headers" 
(ends) and " stretchers " 
(sides) of the brick. 
The headers in these 
cottages are of a darker 
colour than the 
stretchers; very likely the 
bricks were from the same 
kiln, the headers more 
burnt than the stretchers. fig. -jd. 




IN SURREY 



59 



It will be noticed in the Godalming front that the plain 
surface, between the brick framing are filled with stone walling. 




FIG. 'J'], GARDEN WALL DOORWAY, GREAT TANGLEY MANOR. 

Bargate stone is used a great deal in the neighbourhood of Godal- 
ming. There are also stone cottages of the Tudor period in Hasle- 



6o 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




FIG. 78. ALMSHOUSES AT FARNCOMBE. 



mere, and another 
example is shown 
on Plate lxxxii. A 
feature of the wide 
mortar joints in the 
masonry is the press- 
ing in of small iron 
stones like nailheads, 
known as " gallet- 
ing " or " garnet- 
ting (Fig 76). 

The house at 

Ockley, otherwise brick built, has stone quoins to the chimney stacks ; 

the lower part of the farm at Seale is of stone with brick dressings 

to the window openings 

foundations, though un- 
fortunately these were 
often very inadequate. 
The wall enclosing the 
garden at Great Tangley 
Manor is a delightful 
combination of Bargate 
stone and brick and tile. 
Fig. 77 shows one of the 
little doorways in the 
wall ; I do not know the 
date of this. 

Plates XXXVI, lviii, 
and others show groups fig. 80. 







Mill 



FIG. 79. 




IN SURREY 




FIG. 8l. 
KNOCKER AT PUTTENDEN. 




fOjUL^. 



FIG. 82. 




FIG. 83. 
KNOCKER AT TANGLEY. 




FIG. 84. FIG. 85. 

A CASEMENT FASTENER. AN EYELET. LOCK AND BOLT. 






FIG. 86. 
FOOT SCRAPER. 



FIG. 87. 

scold's bridle. 



FIG. 88. 
RUSHLIGHT HOLDER. 



OLD METAL-WORK. 




no* 89. 

THE SIGN OF THE ** WHITE 
HART,^' BLETCHIMGLY, 



IN SURREY 



63 



of brick houses of quiet and unobtrusive design greatly prefer- 
able to the majority of modem houses of the same class. 

This is not the place to consider the household gear and 
furniture of the old cottages ; that has recently been done by an 
authority upon the 
subject. It is, how- 
ever, within the archi- 
tect's province to 
refer to the iron and 
lead work forming part 
of the house itself. 
It has been left to 
modern factories and 
modern civilization to 
produce, and condone, 
work in metal with- 
out either grace of 
workmanship or 
beauty of design. 
Within recent years 
enlightened craftsmen 
have set themselves to 
carry on the tradition 
of the smith ; a few 
with such success as 
to reassure the most desponding lover of these crafts. 

Manuscripts from the tenth century onwards record ironwork, 
always of an ornamental character. Our museums house " little 
miracles of art " in metal. The name of smith was once honoured 
amongst the arts, when, as in the words of Keats — 
To be first in beauty was to be first in might. 




FIG. 90. 

AN ENTRANCE GATEWAY IN FARNHAM*. 



64 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



The common fittings about these old houses served — and where 
they remain still serve — to gratify the eye as well as honour the 
maker and his trade. Of household effects the most ingenious and 
most ornate were the chimney cranes, roasting spits and fire-dogs of 

the kitchen fire ; 
these are now only 
to be found in 
museums. Besides 
compiling the valu- 
able records in her 
book upon Old West 
Surreyj Miss Jekyll 
has formed a 
museum at Guild- 
ford, where the 
choicest examples of 
household effects 
may be seen. 

Hinges, richly 
foliated in the 
churches, plain, but 
with chequered 
tooled patterns in 
the houses, stretch 
their arms across the 
old doors ; they 
served the double 
purpose of securing our ancestors against the outer world, and the 
doors themselves against the ravages of time (Figs. 79 and 80). 
The door handles and knockers (Figs. 81, 82, 83) were no doubt 
made in the village, and in work of any importance a temporary 




FIG. 91. IRONWORK OF GATE SHOWN IN FIG. 90. 



IN SURREY 



65 




I [G, 92. HOUR GLASS 
JTAND, BLrrCHINGLV. 



forge would be set up^ on the 
spot, as in the thirteenth cen- 
tury.^ Locks and bolts were 
legitimate opportunities for the 
craftsman's genius (Fig. 85). 
The casement fasteners of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies at Guildford and else- 
have still to be im- 



where 
proved upon. The simplest 
cottage cockspur fastener 
satisfies alike the hand and 
eye (Fig. 84). Such of the 
inn signs as are left to-day 
show the skill of the village 
smith. The sign of the 
fV hits' Hart at Bletchingly 
(Fig. 89)5 standing out in 
the wide street, is not to 
be lightly passed. The figure of a 
heart is worked with taste into the 
design, framing the carved and painted 
bunch of grapes in its centre. Colour- 
ing and gilding was much used on iron, lead, and wood, 

and traces of it are 
still to be found 
in the more pro- 
tected parts of the 




FIG. 93. FARNHAM. 




work. 



FIG. 94. PIPE RACK. FIG. 95. BED WAGON. 



* Turner. 



66 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 




iiut^Am/t^ G^m34, 



Better class houses of 
the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries were richly 
ornamented with the smith's 
art in gates and fences, 
grilles and fanlights ; Figs. 
90 and 91 are from a house 
in Castle Street, Farnham. 
Casement frames have 
been bettered in recent years 
for weatherproof qualities ; 
so too has the lead caning 
The flat wide section of the 



FIG. 96. 

securing the small panes of glass 
caning is still the best, but in good work it is made a little wider 
— not less than i inch — and the jointing is done with a weather- 
proof mastic. The early windows generally show the diamond- 
shaped quarries, and the later ones those of rectangular shape. 
The rectangular lines are the most restful from inside the room, 
and are to be 
preferred in new 
work ; in neither 
do I know of 
cases of narrow 
borders such as 
are some times 
used nowadays, 
and I do not 
think their intro- 
duction is any 
improvement 
upon the old 







FIG. 97. 

CANDELABRUM AT ABBOt's, HOSPITAL, GUILDFORD. 



IN SURREY 



67 









\ 


m^ 








) 


>- 




-< 








ATA 



FIG. 98. FIG. 99. 

GLAZING AT GLAZING AT 

OXTED. ALFOLD. 



way. Although, as Mr. Nevill 
points out, the charming quality 
of the old glass is due to decay, 
it is possible to use discrimination 
in the choice of modern glass, the 
best " trade " qualities are by no 
means necessarily the most de- 
sirable. The practice of inserting 
large plate-glass windows is per- 



haps one of the most objectionable 
ever introduced into domestic archi- 
tecture. The window opening 
unrelieved by the tracery of leaded 
lines, or even by the harder lines of 
wooden glazing bars, is a chilling 
blank ; much as the human eye is 
when suffering from cataract ; in- 




1 1 ^ ' ' 



*r 4 






^ 
^ 



^^h*r 



FIG. 100. 




FIG. 101 . LEAD RAINWATER 
HEADS, GUILDFORD. 



ternally the plate glass gives no 
sense of comfort or of being 
under the shelter of a roof. 
There were occasional excur- 
sions from the diamond or 
simple rectangular patterns ; 
that shown on Fig. 98 from 
Oxted has the excuse of the 



68 



OLD COTTAGES AND FARM-HOUSES 



saddlebar and fastener where the pattern is varied ; Fig. 99 is 
from a cottage at Alfold. A quaint and delightful feature of 
these cottages is the ventilating lights with pierced patterns 
cast in lead, many of delicate lattice type. Examples are shown 




FIG. 102. A WELL AT BASHING. 



from Milford (Fig. 100), and an elaborate one from the dairy 
window of Summersbury Farm-house (Fig. 16). 

Lead was a material cast and cut into endless beautiful forms. 
The three lead rainwater heads (Figs. loi and 103) are all 
from Guildford ; that from Abbot's Hospital is dated 1627 ; the 
others are probably later. I know of no instance of its use in 
cottages unless it be for pumps. Most of the cottages have their 



IN SURREY 



69 



own wells, raising the water either with dippers or with a winch 
and bucket. Fig. 102 shows one of these well heads with a rough 
roof over it ; the wooden buckets are now practically a thing of 
the past. 




FIG. 103. RAINWATER HEAD AT ABBOt's HOSPITAL, GUILDFORD. 



Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frame, and London. 




o 

u. 






4 




o 

EL. 



r 

X 

D 

r 
o 

u 

r 

> 

n 



Plate III. 




IN ASH VILLAGE. 




COTTAGES BY THE CHURCH, ALFOLD. 




< 

o 

z 

X 
en 

< 



Plate V. 




THE VILLAGE STREET, ASH. 




BETWEEN TONOHAM AND FARNHAM. 



> 

o 




2 
O 
H 
O 

z 

S 
o 



2 
U 



O 



D 

r 
u 



o 

H 

o 




z 
o 

H 

o 

z 

S 
o 

(U 
QQ 



O 

r 
u 

X 

D 
£ 
U 



< 
I- 

H 
O 

u 




> 

o 

z 

X 






u 
n 

BJ 

u> 

D 
O 

E 

< 




r 
u 

D 

r 
u 

< 

u 

Z 

UJ 

O 

< 



o 

< 

o 
u 




^mw 



^-i 






o 

&} 

aa 

< 

u 
O 

< 

O 
U 



Plats XI. 




CHIMNEY AND ENTRANCE AT BRIMSCOMBE. 




o 

a. 
O 

Z 

o 
o 

E 

u 

< 



< 
O 

z 

»- 



X 
«l 

a. 




O 
a. 
O 

Z 

o 
o 

r 
u 

s* 

< 

bJ 

aa 
:S 
o 
u 



•> 
>< 




o 

z 

5 

Q 

r 
u 



o 

< 

< 



Q 

o 

r 



> 

X 




o 

O 

z 

S 

9 

r 
u 



Plate XVI. 





THE 'CROWN* INN, CHIDDINOFOLD. 




z 
o 

H 

o 

< 




< 



> 

< 

</) 

o 
u 

z 
o 

oc 

Urn 

H 

u 

u 

r 



Plate XIX. 




THE PORCH, CROSSWAYS FARM, ABINOER HAMMER. 




< 



D 

r 
o 



< 
O 



CA 

i 

< 

u 

> 




oc 

D 

r 
o 

a 
O 



D 
O 

r 
z 

u 

< 




o 
z 

c 

< 



< 

w 
O 

< 

t 

o 
u 



Plate XXIII. 




BACK OF COTTAGES, EASHINO. 



X 




O 

z 

s 

< 
u 

sf 



u 

S 






t 

o 
o 



Plate XXV. 




.> • '' 



NORTHLANDS FARM, EWHURST. 




(A 

D 
S 






Z 

< 

s 

« 
O 

z 
o 






> 

X 
X 




06 

D 
£ 



O 



z 

04 

mJ 
mJ 

u 

oT 
(/) 

O 

r 

< 



O 
u. 
O 

2 



O 



> 




D 
S 



X 
X 




S 



< 




O 

z 




06 

X 



D 
O 

s 

< 

GU 
> 

00 

(/) 

06 
U 

D 

CO 



Plate XXXI. 




VIEW OF THE CHIMNEYS, THE ALMSHOUSES, FARNCOMBE. 




M 

o 
o 

z 

BU 



D 
O 

r 

C/) 

< 

U 

£ 



u 
O 

z 

H 
Z 



Qu 

< 

r 
u 




OJ 

ea 

< 
r 

< 
U 

O 

< 

O 

o 



Plate XXXIII. 




STOCKHURST FARM, NEAR OXTED. 




FRONT OF COTTAGES AT FARNCOMBE. 




< 

£ 
Z 



H 
U 

u 

H 







oc 

D 

r 

u 

CA 

D 
O 

r 



> 

D 
M 






Plate XXXI. 




VIEW OF THE CHIMNEYS. THE ALMSHOUSES, FARNCOMBE. 




M 

8 

Z 

< 

BU 



D 
O 

r 



u 

r 

H 

O 

H 

U 

O 

z 

< 

H 
Z 



r 
u 




< 
r 

< 
U 

O 

< 

O 

o 




< 

r 



tu 

kT 
(/) 

O 

r 
% 

< 

BU 
> 

u 

•J 

< 
u 

06 
OU 
(A 




< 
> 

Oi 

D 

CO 
c« 

O 



UJ 




en 

< 



o 

z 
< 

> 

« 

D 
OQ 
en 
O 

DU 

Z 
tu 
u 




o 

z 



< 
a 
o 
o 

< 
u 
z 

< 

O 
< 
u 
H 
CO 

Z 
D 



Plate XLII. 




l^^fl 



UNSTEAD FARM, NEAR OODALMINO. 




Z 

o 

H 
«/) 

a 
o 

o 

d 

< 
o 

« 

r 
u 

K 

D 

r 



> 




< 
£ 
en 

O 
O 

H 
< 



O 

£ 

O 

H 
Z 

o 




a 

06 

o 

DU 
O 

5 
o 

oc 

< 



u 

UJ 

oc 



a 
o 

i 

06 

< 
DU 



Z 

flu 

o 



> 

X 




Q 

u 



o 



D 
O 

X 

Q 

D 
H 
y) 

tu 
O 

< 




o 

tu 
O 
u 

s 

o 

< 
u 
2 
(/> 

(U 

O 

< 



o 



> 




< 



Q 
a 

£ 
0. 

£ 



X 




u 

u 



£ 
> 

< 

o 

oc 

z 
o 

!Q 
o 

< 

H 
H 
O 
O 




tu 
O 

2 



D 
O 



lU 

D 
O 

u 

X 

H 




Q 
O 



D 
O 

H 




Q 

O 
tu 



D 
O 

H 

< 




Q 
O 



u 

D 
O 

£ 

< 



O 



O 



Plate LV. 




*M ij0«^*''" 



AT SHERE. 




AT NINE ELMSi MILFORD. 



Plate LVI. 



^S' 




:x:'Stm 



GROUP OF COTTAGES, HAMBLEDON. 




COTTAGE AT MILFORD. 



Plate LVn. 




RUINED COTTAGE NEAR NORMANDY VILLAGE. 




VIEW OF COTTAGE NEAR NORMANDY VILLAGE. 



Plate LVIII. 




FARMHOUSE AND COTTAGES NEAR NORMANDY VILLAGE. 




COTTAGES IN WORPLESDON VILLAGE. 



Plate LX. 




MANN FARM, EAST SHALFORD, GUILDFORD. 




THE 'SURREY OAKS' INN, NEAR NEWDIOATE. 



X 




> 
u 

O 

< 

tu 

z 

< 

0. 



U 

z 
z 
o 

CQ 



Plate LXII. 




THE PORCH, BONNET'S FARM, NEAR OCKLEY. 



X 




> 

X 





D 

r 

lU 



O 

< 
H 
H 
O 
U 

o 

Q 

Z 

u 



> 

X 







Z 

z 



o 

£ 

u 

z 

< 



X 



> 

X 




> 
u 

-J 
a. 



< 



> 




u 

D 
O 

£ 

Oi 
O 

Z 

< 



r 

H 

u 
O 

z 

> 

u 

0. 



O 
O 

o 



O 



> 

X 

-J 







< 

Q 

Z 
u 



CO 

< 



Plate LXX. 




YARD ENTRANCE, EAST END FARM, SEALE. 



X 

X 

J 




z 
u 
u 

O 



•J 
< 



u 

y 

a! 
ou 
O 

I- 
(/> 
O 

0. 

u 

r 



X 

X 

-J 




u 

o 

> 
u 

-J 

< 
X 



o 

Q. 

u 

r 

H 
O 






X 
X 

J 




tu 

u 

o 



r 



tu 



H 
c/) 
O 
flu 

U 

r 
I- 




2 
u 
ttj 

O 



-J 

< 
X 

(A 

< 



Plate LXXV. 




DETAIL VIEW OF OABLE AT SHAMLEY OREEN. 



> 

X 
X 




> 



< 
Z 



D 
O 

£ 

06 

< 
ou 



O 




u 

O 



< 
£ 
c/) 

(u 
O 

flu 

u 

r 




u 
a: 
u 

r 







06 
U 

C 

< 



X 




o 



Q 

u 



p. 
> 



2 

< 
p. 



Plale LXXX. 




NEAR SLYFIELD OREtN, GUILDFORD. 



Plate LXXXI. 




WATTS' FARM, NOW COTTAGES, NEAR SLYFIELD QREEN, GUILDFORD. 




HURTMORE FARMHOUSE, NEAR GODALMING. 



X 




> 
u 

O 

X 

< 
u 

Z 

uT 
o 

< 

-4 
Ou 



< 



Plate LXXXIII. 





TWO VIEWS OF FARMHOUSE (NOW COTTAGES) AT STOKE, GUILDFORD. 



Plate LXXXIV. 




SOUTH VIEW OF COTTAGES AT STOKE, GUILDFORD. 




NEAR NORMANDY VILLAGE. 




o 

z 

< 

> 

ilJ 

o 

Z 

< 

< 
U 

O 



Plate LXXXVI. 




A GABLE AT GREAT TANOLEY MANOR. 




u 
(/) 

D 
Z 
H 

Z 



Plate LXXXVIII. 





COTTAGE NEAR THE INN, THURSLEY. 



Plate LXXXIX. 




AT THURSLEY. 




AT ELSTEAD. 



Plate XC. 




HOUSE AT OOMSHALL. 




AT THURSLEY. 



Plate XCI. 




BARN AT TONOHAM. 




CART-SHED AND GRANARY AT TONOHAM. 



X 




UJ 



< 
U 

z 

< 

Urn 
U 

z 

O 

OQ 

o 
p 




> 
u 



Z 

z 

< 
s 



u 

s 



Plate XCV. 





THE VILLAGE STREET, WITLEY. 
ENTRANCE TO PUTTENHAM VILLAGE. 



> 

u 




> 
u 

-J 



r 
u 

D 

r 
u 

UJ 

r 

H 

< 
z 



Plate XCVII. 




SLYFIELD FARM, STOKE NEAR GUILDFORD. 




MANOR FARM, WITLEY. 



Plate XCVIll, 




HURST COTTAGES, WORPLESDON. 




LITTLEFIELD FARM. 



Plate XCIX. 





NORTON FARMHOUSE, WORPLESDON, FRONT AND BACK VIEWS. 



Plate C. 





WOLVENS FARM, NEAR ABINQER, FRONT AND BACK VIEWS. 



JH- "